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Webinar - Lower Limb Reflexes and Upper Motor Neuron Lesion (Part 2)

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Feb 12 2023, 5:38 pm

Dr. Been, This is Very informative lesson! I just passed my FNP boards and am about to start my practice as an NP in a Neurology Office , is there a book or an app that you'd recommend for me to use for a beginner? Of course I am using your videos etc as well . I'd really appreciate it .Thank you . Phil



May 04 2020, 4:29 pm

Would you please explain why corticospinal lesions lead to spasticity while extrapyramidal lesions lead to rigidity?

Nervous system examination is crucial to identifying the type of lesion, its location, and its extent. Lower limb reflexes are an important part of this examination especially in a patient in coma. Dr. Mobeen discusses the foundations of lower limb examination in this webinar. Next part will present the clinical utility and lesion assessment based on the abnormal reflexes e.g. positive Babinski's sign (plantar reflex), or hyperreflexia vs. hyporeflexia etc.


This second part of the webinar discusses the following topics:

  • Cause of hyperreflexia in a patient of upper motor neuron lesion.
  • Cause of hypertonia in a patient of upper motor neuron lesion.
  • Dysinhibition of the lower centers.
  • Clonus
  • When does atonia and flacidity occur?
  • When will we see fasciculation and twitching in the muscle?
  • When will we see muscle wasting?
  • Denervation degeneration.
  • Difference between the lower motor and upper motor neuron lesion.
  • What is plantar reflex or babinski's sign?
  • Role of the S1 spinal segment in plantar reflex.
  • What does involvement of the L4 and L5 spinal segments do to plantar reflex?
  • When is Babinski's sign is positive?
  • What is tripe reflex in the lower limb?
  • What does involvement of the L2 and L3 spinal segments do to the plantar reflex?


Following topics are discussed in the previous part:

  • Neurology examination. How to differentiate between upper and lower motor neuron lesions?
  • What is the difference between an upper motor neuron and a lower motor neuron?
  • Overview of the corticospinal tract or pyramidal tract.
  • What are spinal reflexes?
  • What is a reflex arc?
  • Components of a reflex arc.
  • What is the role of the upper motor neurons in the spinal reflexes?




Following answers are created by ChatGPT. Occasionally the answer may be harmful, incorrect, false, misleading, incomplete, or limited in knowledge of world. Please contact your doctor for all healthcare decisions. Also, double check the answer provided by the AI below.

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