Mediastinum 3D

  • Description
    • * It is the middle space left in the thoracic cavity in between the lungs.
    • * Is bounded laterally by the pleural cavities, anteriorly by the sternum and the transversus thoracis muscles, and posteriorly by the vertebral column.
    • * The mediastinum is divided into the superior mediastinum and the inferior mediastinum.
    • * The inferior mediastinum is further divided into the anterior, middle and posterior mediastina.

 

  • Superior Mediastinum:
    • * It is bounded anteriorly by manubrium sterni, posteriorly by upper four thoracic vertebrae, superiorly by thoracic inlet, and inferiorly by an imaginary plane passing through the sternal angle in front and the lower border of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra behind.
    • * Contains the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, arch of the aorta, thoracic duct, thymus, trachea, esophagus, vagus nerve, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and phrenic nerve.

 

  • Anterior Mediastinum:
    • * It is a very narrow space in front of the pericardium, overlapped by the thin anterior borders of both lungs.
    • * Is bounded anteriorly by the body of sternum, posteriorly by pericardium, superiorly by an imaginary plane separating the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum, and inferiorly by superior surface of diaphragm.
    • * Its contents are sterno-pericardial ligaments, lymph nodes with lymphatics, small mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery, the lowest part of the thymus, and areolar tissue.

 

  • Middle Mediastinum:
    • * Middle mediastinum is bounded anteriorly by sternopericardial ligaments and mediastinal pleura on each side.
    • * It is bounded posteriorly by oesophagus, descending thoracic aorta, and azygos vein.
    • * Contains the heart, pericardium, phrenic nerves, roots of the great vessels (aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and vena cavae), arch of the azygos vein, and main bronchi.

 

  • Posterior Mediastinum:
    • * Is bounded anteriorly by pericardium, bifurcation of trachea, pulmonary vessels, and posterior part of the upper surface of the diaphragm.
    • * Is bounded posteriorly by lower eight thoracic vertebrae and intervening discs.
    • * Contains the esophagus, thoracic aorta, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, vagus nerves, sympathetic trunk, and splanchnic nerves.

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  • Description
    • * It is the middle space left in the thoracic cavity in between the lungs.
    • * Is bounded laterally by the pleural cavities, anteriorly by the sternum and the transversus thoracis muscles, and posteriorly by the vertebral column.
    • * The mediastinum is divided into the superior mediastinum and the inferior mediastinum.
    • * The inferior mediastinum is further divided into the anterior, middle and posterior mediastina.

 

  • Superior Mediastinum:
    • * It is bounded anteriorly by manubrium sterni, posteriorly by upper four thoracic vertebrae, superiorly by thoracic inlet, and inferiorly by an imaginary plane passing through the sternal angle in front and the lower border of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra behind.
    • * Contains the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, arch of the aorta, thoracic duct, thymus, trachea, esophagus, vagus nerve, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and phrenic nerve.

 

  • Anterior Mediastinum:
    • * It is a very narrow space in front of the pericardium, overlapped by the thin anterior borders of both lungs.
    • * Is bounded anteriorly by the body of sternum, posteriorly by pericardium, superiorly by an imaginary plane separating the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum, and inferiorly by superior surface of diaphragm.
    • * Its contents are sterno-pericardial ligaments, lymph nodes with lymphatics, small mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery, the lowest part of the thymus, and areolar tissue.

 

  • Middle Mediastinum:
    • * Middle mediastinum is bounded anteriorly by sternopericardial ligaments and mediastinal pleura on each side.
    • * It is bounded posteriorly by oesophagus, descending thoracic aorta, and azygos vein.
    • * Contains the heart, pericardium, phrenic nerves, roots of the great vessels (aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and vena cavae), arch of the azygos vein, and main bronchi.

 

  • Posterior Mediastinum:
    • * Is bounded anteriorly by pericardium, bifurcation of trachea, pulmonary vessels, and posterior part of the upper surface of the diaphragm.
    • * Is bounded posteriorly by lower eight thoracic vertebrae and intervening discs.
    • * Contains the esophagus, thoracic aorta, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, vagus nerves, sympathetic trunk, and splanchnic nerves.

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Anatomy (Beta)

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