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Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

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This video is part of the series of videos discussing restrictive lung diseases. 
We will discuss hypersensitivity pneumonitis in this talk.

  • Definition
    • Alveolitis due to inhaled external allergens. 
    • Involves smaller airways and the respiratory zones instead of the large airways.
  • The difference of this disease from asthma.
    • This is a mixture of type III and type IV allergies.
  • Pathophysiology of the hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    • Macrophages
    • Allergen presentation to T and B cells in the lymph nodes.
    • Interleukins released.
  • Phases
    • Acute and Chronic.
    • Role of neutrophils and T cells in the acute phase.
    • Granuloma formation in the chronic phase.
    • Why hypersensitivity pneumonitis is also classified as a granulomatous disease.
    • IL4, IL5, IL12, C5a
  • Scarring of the respiratory zones.
  • Clinical Presentation
    • Fever, dyspnea, cough, lethargy, malaise, restrictive lung disease.
    • FEV1 reduced
    • FEV1/FVC increased due to increased elasticity and rapid expulsion.
    • Monday morning blues experienced by the patients.
  • Industries/tasks that can cause this disease
    • Fungi and bacteria from farming work - farmers lungs. 
    • Micropolyspora fanny and bagassosis. 
    • Thermophilic actinomycetes.Cheese workers - moldy cheese. 
    • Penicillium casey.
    • Miller's lungs. 
    • Dusty grain.Animal products, pigeon breeder's lungs. 
    • Pigeon droppings have pigeon serum proteins.
    • Other chemical industry workers.

In this video we will learn about :

1. Definition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. 

2. Pneumonitis vs. Asthma. 

3. Pathogenesis of acute and chronic reaction. 

4. Type III and IV hypersensitivity reaction. 

5. Effect on capacities and volumes. 

6. Clinical signs and symptoms 

7. Predisposed population. 



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