Author declares no conflict of interest.

In addition to the presenter, following authors who may have helped with the content writing, review, or approval declare no conflict of interest.

  • Dr. Mobeen Syed
  • Dr. Pei Purdom (DNP)
  • Dr. Benish Zahra
  • Dr. Iqra Batool
  • Dr. Heba Alzawahri

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Personality Disorders

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Dr. Jones, you are so clear and objective on your lectures! This is so helpful! Thank you!


Love your lecture series Dr. Jones! Could we possibly have more topics? Perhaps lectures on modes/types of psychotherapy and their disorder/disease-specific applications? Thanks again!

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In this lecture, we will talk about the presentation to a range of personality disorders. 

A person with a personality disorder will
think differently, 
Feel differently
behave differently 
or relates to others very differently from the average person.

The DSM-V states there are several different types of personality disorder, split into 3 clusters: 
Cluster A: Peculiar thought processes, inappropriate affect – remember them as WEIRD
Cluster B: Mood lability, dissociative symptoms, preoccupation with rejection remember them as WILD
Cluster C: Anxiety, preoccupation with criticism or rigidity remember them as WORRIED

It's not clear exactly what causes personality disorders, but they're thought to result from a combination of the genes a person inherits and early environmental influences – for example, a distressing childhood experience (such as abuse or neglect).

All are relatively common.
More males have antisocial and narcissistic PDs
More females have borderline and histrionic PDs. 

Usually not diagnosed until late adolescence or early adulthood 

Usually very chronic over decades without treatment. 
Symptoms of paranoid, schizoid, and narcissistic PD often worsen with age; 
symptoms of antisocial and borderline PD often ameliorate. 

Key Symptoms. 
A long pattern of difficult interpersonal relationships, problems adapting to stress, failure to achieve goals, chronic unhappiness, low self-esteem 

Personality disorders are usually associated with mood disorders.

Psychotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Intensive and long-term psychodynamic and cognitive therapy are treatments of choice for most PDs. 
Use of mood stabilizers and antidepressants is sometimes useful for Cluster B PDs. 

Differential Diagnosis: 
Major rule-outs are mood disorders, personality change due to a general medical condition, and adjustment disorders. 

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Adam Jones MD

Dr. Adam Lee Jones M.D., MSc, BSc (Hons), PgCert, FHEA is a doctor from the United Kingdom. In addition to his clinical practice, he is a medical lecturer at Cardiff University and an anatomy demonstrator at Birmingham University. Dr. Jones is an aspiring otolaryngologist with a strong interest in anatomy, medical sciences, and public health. He enjoys teaching and utilizing animated medical illustrations to teach.

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