Author declares no conflict of interest.

In addition to the presenter, following authors who may have helped with the content writing, review, or approval declare no conflict of interest.

  • Dr. Mobeen Syed
  • Dr. Pei Purdom (DNP)
  • Dr. Benish Zahra
  • Dr. Iqra Batool
  • Dr. Heba Alzawahri

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Catatonia

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sir,

I cannot find 12 criterias in the board.3 of 12 will enough to diagnosis ( DSM-5).

10 in board, another 2  ?

Thanks for your presentation ..

   

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In this lecture, we will discuss the clinically relevant points of Catatonia. Catatonia is an abnormal neuropsychiatric condition that affects both behavior and motor function, and results in unresponsiveness in someone who otherwise appears to be awake.

For the purpose of diagnosis, there are three types of catatonia, including catatonia associated with another mental disorder, catatonia disorder due to another medical condition, and unspecified catatonia.

Although often associated with schizophrenia and other affective disorders, catatonia may be a result of, or due to, any number of psychotic disorders, mood disorders or general medical conditions. Catatonia is sometimes referred to as catatonic syndrome, because there is not just one identifying sign or symptom associated with this condition or symptoms that appear separately from one another, but rather a collection of several symptoms that appear together at the same time.

These specific signs and symptoms do not vary, regardless of the nature of the condition. In terms of symptoms…

Catatonia can be stuporous or excited. Stuporous catatonia is characterised by immobility during which people may hold rigid poses (stupor), an inability to speak (mutism), as well as waxy flexibility, in which they maintain positions after being placed in them by someone else. Mutism may be partial and they may repeat meaningless phrases or speak only to repeat what someone else says. People with stuporous catatonia may also show stereotyped, repetitive movements (stereotypy).

Excited catatonia is characterised by bizarre, non-goal directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

 

How do you diagnose this condition? Well, according to DSM-5, at least three out of twelve symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of catatonia. These symptoms include:

 

 

• Stupor (oblivious inability to move or respond to stimuli), catalepsy (rigid body posture)

• Mutism (little to no verbal communication) • Waxy flexibility (body remains in whatever position it is placed by another)

• Negativism (lack of verbal response) • Posturing (holding a posture or position that goes against gravity)

• Mannerisms (extreme or odd movements and mannerisms)

• Stereotypy (frequent repetitive movements for no reason)

• Agitation (for no reason), grimacing (distorted facial expressions)

• Echolalia (repeating others’ words)

• Echopraxia (repeating others’ movements).

 

When catatonia is associated with schizophrenia, stupor may continue for long periods of time as compared to schizophrenia associated with other psychiatric conditions, where there are likely to be long remissions.

 

So what causes Catatonia? Well, Catatonia is generally associated with, or due to, other medical conditions, especially brain disorders such as neurodegenerative disease and encephalitis. A severe vitamin B12 deficiency; infection; exposure to toxins; or conditions such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, autism, extreme trauma, and mood disorders are also associated with catatonia. Catatonia can also be idiopathic, arising from an unknown cause. Any general medical patient who displays obvious related symptoms may be catatonic. The link between catatonia due to or associated with general medical conditions is unclear and the condition often goes unrecognized, but when identified, responds to standard catatonia treatments.

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Adam Jones MD

Dr. Adam Lee Jones M.D., MSc, BSc (Hons), PgCert, FHEA is a doctor from the United Kingdom. In addition to his clinical practice, he is a medical lecturer at Cardiff University and an anatomy demonstrator at Birmingham University. Dr. Jones is an aspiring otolaryngologist with a strong interest in anatomy, medical sciences, and public health. He enjoys teaching and utilizing animated medical illustrations to teach.


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